Thursday, September 3, 2020

Challenges Facing The Translator English Language Essay

Difficulties Facing The Translator English Language Essay The individual delight got from interpretation is the fervor of attempting to tackle a thousand little issues with regards to an enormous one. An interpretation commits the interpreter to settle on various choices with the goal that a total interpretation is delivered. Such an interpretation must be written in a manner which serves a similar capacity as the source message and be socially rational between the source and target dialects. In this article I will talk about a scope of choices that the interpreter must make and making explicit references to printed investigation, social intervention and some applied parts of interpretation. The interpretation starts with the perusing of the source text which permits the interpreter to recognize the few key segments which will frame the establishments of the interpretation. The interpreter must do a point by point printed examination with the goal that the aim, readership and setting of the source text are distinguished. (Newmark P, 1988) I see this as the main test that faces the interpreter as various choices must be made to explain where the interpretation will be distributed, who the interpretation will be focused at; and what the capacity of the content will be. (Alfano V, 2012) Newmark (1988) states The goal of the content speaks to the source language scholars disposition to the subject matter.For the interpreter, understanding what is implied by the creator of the source text is fundamental as the demeanor of the creator will recommend the language capacity and setting of the objective content. Bã ¼hlers hypothesis of language usefulness can decide a book to have an expressive, vocative or useful capacity relying upon the center subject and status of the writer. The test for the interpreter is to decide ones own status inside the content so as to distinguish the language work. Newmark gives instances of the creators status being unknown; he shows that this status can be utilized for an enlightening or vocative book contingent upon its primary capacity. On the off chance that the fundamental capacity of the content was to come clean, it would propose that the content takes an instructive language work, while a book focusing on the readership would recomme nd a vocative capacity. (Newmark P, 1988) During the literary examination the interpreter must survey the readership; I believe this to be a specific test for the interpreter as one must attempt to evaluate the degree of instruction, class, age and sex of the readership before deciding it to be for a specialist peruser, ignorant peruser or taught layman. (Newmark P, p.13) Depending on the readership the interpreter may need to give more consideration to the perusers of the objective content than that of the source text. A physical topography course reading focused on an uneducated readership would utilize general jargon so as to help the readership into understanding the content; The floor of the ocean is secured with columns of large mountains, though for the informed layman, the interpreter may utilize point explicit jargon as there is a suspicion that the setting of the content would be sufficient for the peruser to deal with the key issues; The floor of the sea is secured with incredible mountain chains and profound chan nels. (Newmark P, p.p.13-14) The variety in style relies upon the readership and setting of the objective content. Newmark (1988) proposes utilizing Martin Joos and Strevens complex scales while surveying the degree of convention inside the content. The last part of the printed examination that I consider to be trying for the interpreter is deciding the setting of the objective content so as to satisfy the prerequisites of the customer. The interpreter must choose what the objective content equal is for the source text, and afterward choose the sort of language that must be utilized to suit the distribution. For instance, The Guardian paper is focused on an informed upper-white collar class readership; this implies the language utilized would be taught and written in a conventional style. The interpreter in this model doesn't have to give specific consideration to the readership except if there are social errors inside in the content. This paper has alluded to various issues that the interpreter faces before converting into the objective language. Here, we can see that it is basic that the interpreter settles on the right choices while leading a literary investigation so as to recognize the key highlights inside the content with the goal that one can properly convert into the objective language. Following the printed examination there are further issues which cause worry for the interpreter. These issues go under the heading of social intercession; an interpreter must know that a few articulations, callings and exercises are not understood in each language, in this manner the interpreter must conclude how to decipher them. The interpretation of culture explicit references represents a specific issue for the interpreter as certain words may not be translatable, in this way the interpreter must utilize the applicable interpretation strategy to suit the issue. During an interpretation the interpreter must ask oneself whether the words in the source language are transferable in the objective language. The interpretation of social words, for example, les pieds noirs and les maghrã ©bins can't be actually deciphered as they have no significance in the objective language. Social and unmistakable counterparts can be utilized to explain this issue. The interpreter can provide additional data so as to keep up a useful equivalency inside the content. Spellbinding comparable: les pieds noirs ou les maghrã ©bins; second era settlers starting from Algeria and North Africa. Social proportional: les pieds noirs ou les maghrã ©binsâ ; French Algerians (les francais dalgerie) Balance: les pieds noirs ou les maghrã ©bins; dark Immigrant  Newmark (1988) states that the interpreters job is to cause individuals to comprehend, not to beguile by utilizing vogue words. in this way truly deciphering the words may not be sufficient for the peruser to comprehend what has been written in the content. le ministre de lintã ©rieur being interpreted as the clergyman of the inside holds no an incentive in English though Home secretary or Director of country security is a known situation to the readership in the objective language. This is a case of utilizing social equivalency so as to guarantee that the Target text peruser can comprehend the content. I will currently talk about a portion of the applied parts of interpretation. There are numerous fields wherein an interpreter can rehearse ones calling; other than scholarly interpretation, one can work in a variety of branches of knowledge, for example, trade, law and film. Despite the fact that the interpreters job is the equivalent in each field, a few difficulties are introduced to the interpreter more plainly in certain practices than others. The interpretation of diversion may appear to be straight forward in ones brain yet the inquiry must emerge to the interpreter that a few articulations and expressions that are amusing in ones own language and culture might be distinctive in another. Vandaeles meaning of funniness: Cleverness is the thing that causes beguilement, jollity, a Spontaneous grin and giggling. (eds Gambier Y and Van Doorslaer L, 2010) The interpreter must comprehend the impetus which makes phrases hilarious in the objective language, with the goal that one can suitably imitate the impact of the source text. The interpreter must incite sentiments of positive excitement while luring these emotive sentiments from the readership; anyway a harmony among devotion and straightforwardness must be kept up in the objective language so as to get a similar entertaining impact as one gets from the source language. (Vandaele J, 2002) How does the interpreter accomplish this? There are various components which make an expression or articulation interesting. Regularly the point, circumstance and introduction of a joke can bring out sentiments of silliness and could be viewed as a part of interpreting society. Kopp J (2012) clarifies that current undertakings have a major impact with regards to humor and uses the case of theme based current issues projects, for example, Have I got news for you, (by the BBC) to expand this: Alan Davies: Eight hundred Americans pass on in a McDonalds consistently. Rich Hall: Which one? Best to keep away from that one. (QI.wikiquote, 2013) The above statement shows that setting is significant so as to discover the joke amusing. Despite the fact that it is conceivable that the introduction of the joke can influence the beneficiaries view of the joke, those living in the west are educated that America is confronting an emergency as far as the degrees of corpulence inside the nation. Alan Davies is depicted to be giving a reality about the quantity of passings that happen inside the cheap food establishment McDonalds every year. Anyway Rick lobby plays on Davies utilization of the solitary formal person, place or thing, a McDonalds, giving the feeling that 800 Americans bite the dust in one specific establishment of the inexpensive food chain every year. For what reason is this interesting? Kopp J (2012) proposes that the disparagement of a country or gathering of individuals can bring out a hilarious result; here, the accentuation on the demise of Americans recommends a social elitism among the individuals who are not of an American nationality, therefore making an amusing circumstance. She likewise expresses that the information shared by the beneficiary is significant as one that doesn't know about the circumstance on Americas weight emergency or doesn't know about the McDonalds cheap food chain can't promptly comprehend the joke. The interpreter must comprehend that a few networks may not perceive this since they don't know about the subject. In this manner the interpreter may add data to the interpretation so as to accomplish the equivalent comical impact. [FR] Alan Davies : il y a 800 amã ©ricains qui meurent dans un McDo chaque annã ©e. [FR] Rick Hallâ : Ça cest Vraiâ ? On ne devrait pas aller du mã ªme McDo alorsâ ! Here we can see that the entirety of the key components from the source language stay in the interpretation as the crowd of the objective language are socially mindful of the s

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Viking Longships Essay Example

Viking Longships Paper The Vikings are people groups that were initially from Scandinavia. Scandinavia is currently Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. From the eight to the eleventh century, these individuals initially alluded to as Norsemen attacked puts in Europe and different nations they became alluded to as Vikings. The name Viking, begins from the spot Viken in the Oslofjord. The Oslofjord is a cove south-east of Norway. Vikings are known for pillaging from different social orders. They are normally indicated that the entire Viking country went out to help on these assaults in any case, they were done for the most part free by chieftains that got men who were happy to help and longships. Viking Longships are the warships of the Vikings. These boats were utilized for the most part for strikes in view of their capacity to travel quickly in beach front waters, vast waters, waterways, and estuaries and travel significant distances. The Longships are typically in the middle of twenty to thirty-five meters in length. The biggest Longship found was at Roskilde Harbor, which is in Demark, and it was 35 meters long. It had the ability to convey 72 paddles and a group of 100 men. Tree-ring investigation puts this boat to be made around 1025 A. D. The Longships as a rule conveyed between twenty to sixty Viking warriors. The boat was likewise large enough for all the hardware that the Vikings needed to move, and the plunder that they looted. These Longships were light-weight and solid. They were made with a square sail. The square sails were made of woven fleece. The sail could be pulled down over the group to secure them during harsh tempests. We will compose a custom article test on Viking Longships explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Viking Longships explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Viking Longships explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer The sail is the thing that permitted the Longship to cruise so rapidly all through difficult situations and different waters. The sail in blend with the paddles took into consideration the Vikings to cruise through open seas straight through and afterward change to utilizing the paddles when they were close to assaults. The Longships likewise highlighted a shallow frame that permits the boat to cruise up onto the sea shore or sail through waterways. This additionally supported with assaulting towns that have focuses on the waterway. Specialists in that time would make the vessel distinctively by first parting an oak tree’s trunk into long, dainty boards. The skilled workers appended the sheets along with iron nails then to a solitary tough bottom and afterward to one another, with one board covering another. The Vikings utilized this clinker strategy rather than the more utilized technique for building the skeleton of the frame first. Skilled workers at that point divided the floor timbers to the bottom of the pontoon and not the frame. This made adaptability, speed, mobility inside the vessel. Present day imitations of Viking Longships have reached up to fourteen bunches and could be firmly contrasted with the speed of current boats. Viking Longships were essentially with no edified religion and their boats regularly were made with a winged serpents head on the bow of the boat to shield them from abhorrent ocean spirits. The Longship was an incredible preferred position to the Vikings. At the point when a boss or pioneer kicked the bucket, the Longship was once in a while covered in the grave with the pioneer or boss. The Vikings accepted that this training would support the dead boss or pioneer rapidly sail to Valhalla. Some dead Viking warriors were put in their boats when they died. The boat would then be determined to fire and they would cruise away gradually. The Viking Longships essentially made the Viking Age, from 800 to eleven hundred A. D. A misinterpretation about this period is that the Vikings were the main gathering of unseemly individuals who were running about looting social orders, however in reality this was only a period where this was practically typical. There were a bigger number of gatherings than simply the Vikings ravaging social orders at the same time, the Vikings were only the best at doing it. The model of the Longship made ready for different models of boats. The Vikings basically had a kind of new innovation. References: (THE VIKINGS) (Hauge, 2002) (Fitzhugh, 2005)

Friday, August 21, 2020

Different Aspects of Pain Essay

Torment is a dependent upon which all individuals can relate. There are a wide range of sorts of torment, and individuals respond to these torments in different manners. Agony is likewise caused from a wide range of sources. It could be from distress, stress, or a critical occasion that happens in one’s life. Agony is characterized in the Dictionary as â€Å"mental or passionate misery or torment.† The verse of Robert Frost, James Langston Hughes, and Emily Dickinson all showcase various parts of torment. Robert Lee Frost was conceived on March 26, 1874 in San Francisco, California where his dad functioned as a paper editorial manager. This may have been the place Robert was first presented to the part of composing. Robert’s first distributed sonnet was in a school paper at 16 years old where he composed a sonnet regarding the matter of Cortez in Mexico. Despite the fact that he went to Dartmouth for seven weeks and went through two years at Harvard, he never completed an advanced degree with a degree. After he had gotten hitched, he filled in as a teacher, and during this period is the point at which he invested energy composing most of his verse. After his showing profession, he moved to England to seek after getting his works distributed since his verse was not acknowledged for distributing in America. His initial two books of sonnets, A Boy’s Will and North of Boston, were distributed in England and afterward in America because of the staggering ubiquity of them in E ngland (Greenberg ix-x). Frost’s sonnet â€Å"Out, Out† recounts to an account of the lamentable demise of a kid because of a buzz saw. The title is a reference to act five William Shakespeare’s Macbeth, where the principle character, Macbeth, plays out a talk with respect to the passing of his better half: â€Å"Out, out, brief light! /Life’s however a mobile shadow, a poor player/That swaggers and frets his hour upon the stage/And then is heard no more. It is a story/Told by an imbecile, loaded with sound and fierceness,/Signifying nothing.† The inference to Shakespeare in the title is proper to the topic on the grounds that the discourse of Macbeth expresses that life is short, and definitely will end. That is the message that Robert Frost is attempting to pass on in this sonnet. There are two unique parts of agony that show up in â€Å"Out, Out.† The firstâ one is the part of physical torment. This happens when the buzz saw the kid is utilizing, hits the boy’s hand and harms the hand harshly. â€Å"As if to demonstrate saws recognized what dinner implied,/Leaped out at the boy’s hand,/or appeared to jump †(Frost 522)† The kid at that point starts to feel the agony of what has simply occurred, the physical torment of his hand being cut off by the buzz saw. The following sort of torment that can be seen here is the mental agony, brought about by pressure. Because of the boy’s injury, he starts to fall into pieces about the entire issue (explain this some way or another. â€Å"fall into pieces† sounds somewhat equivocal just as clichã ©) . The sonnet says that the kid â€Å"half in offer, however as though to keep/the life from spilling. At that point the kid saw all †(Frost 522).† These two lines of the sonnet portray that the kid is mature enough to comprehend what is new with what's going on. His hand is harmed past what the specialists can fix, and there is a high chance of death due to what has simply occurred. The word ‘Life’ in this sonnet speaks to the blood that spilling out of his hand. One can likewise observe the lack of concern showed by the remainder of his family. Despite the fact that an individual from the family has only kicked the bucket because of a sad mishap â€Å"Littleâ€lessâ€nothing!â€and that finished it (Frost 522)† they show no agony of the passing of a relative. It is delineated in the last two lines of the sonnet, â€Å"No more to expand on there. Also, they, since they/Were not the one dead, went to their issues (Frost 522).† This shows they had no feeling to the occasion, and went on to what they were doing as though nothing had occurred in any case. The second bit of verse introduced is one by James Langston Hughes. James Langston Hughes was conceived February 1, 1902 in Joplin Missouri. He went through his initial time on earth living with his grandma in Illinois. Hughes started to compose sonnets, and furthermore some short stories, while he was in secondary school. Hughes makes reference to that the essential impacts to his composing are Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Carl Sandburg, and Walt Whitman. His first book of verse, entitled The Weary Blues, was distributed in 1926, while he was in school. Hughes moved on from Lincoln University three years following the production of his first book of verse. The year following his school graduated, Hughesâ won the Harmon gold decoration for writing for the principal novel that he composed, Not Without Laughter. James Langston Hughes sonnet â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers† was the main sonnet of his that was distributed. This sonnet was additionally combined with a good soundtrack later on. It is composed from the point of view of a man that integrates African and African-American history. Hughes does this by naming various waterways that are in Africa and furthermore those that are in the United States. This is the place the wit of Langston Hughes can be seen. The sort of agony that is shown in this sonnet isn't exceptionally self-evident, however it is more suggested than straightforwardly expressed. Seeing that this sonnets discusses African and African-American History, the possibility of the abuse that these society have experienced is something that can be surmised from what the sonnet says. Both of these social orders have experienced significant abuse due to subjection, disparity, and so forth. (while it isn't evident I would prescribe attempting to locate a couple of lines t hat can show the torment) The last sonnet introduced here is a sonnet from Emily Dickinson. Emily Dickinson was conceived in the year 1830 of every a family that was viewed as affluent for that timespan. Her dad eventually drove the family and was a strict man for the family. He read supplications and sections of sacred writing to all that lived in the family to look after this. She went to the theological school for a year, yet returned home after that year because of a lot of undesirable encounters. After Emily left school, she segregated herself from all exercises and obligations that were outside of the family unit, and minded her own business more often than not. She invested a lot of energy understanding books. As a result of the ethics that her dad had, there were very few things for her to look over, as her dad felt that most books that were accessible at the time may stir up her reasoning examples. She at that point settled to peruse the Bible, traditional fantasies, and furthermore crafted by William Shakespeare. Along these lines, a lot of the sonnets that she composed had reference to her readings contained in them. In spite of the fact that there is almost no that individuals know about Emily Dickinson’s outside life, however subsequent to perusing theâ poems that she has composed, one can increase some entrance to within life in Emily Dickinson (Madden 1287). Emily Dickinson composed almost 2,000 unique sonnets in the course of her life (Madden 1288). Just yet a couple of these sonnets were purposefully distributed by her. Albeit Emily made her sibling and sister guarantee to decimate every last bit of her works following her demise, her sister, Lavinia, couldn't pick up the solidarity to demolish her sister Emily’s verse. Not very far after her passing in 1886, nine volumes of her works that were modified in wording, accentuation, structure, and rhyme were distributed. Unedited adaptations that were consistent with the first composition of Emily Dickinson where not distributed until 1955 (Madden 1288). The greater part of the sonnets of Emily Dickinson were her very own regrets that she didn't expect for the general population to ever observe. â€Å"After A Great Pain, A Formal Feeling Comes† is a case of one of these amazingly close to home sonnets. During the time that this sonnet was composed, Dickinson had quite recently lost a dear companion. She was additionally starting to excuse the thoughts of a profession, beginning a family, and reaching anything or anybody that was outside of her own home. This entire sonnet legitimately manages the agony of passionate misfortune that accompanies the dying of an individual that is incredibly close. Passing was something that Dickinson never acclimated to, and it is shown in this sonnet. She portrays how the inclination sits intensely and doesn't appear to leave rapidly â€Å"The Nerves sit ceremonious, as Tombsâ€(Dickinson 1291)† (Lundin 95). In the last two lines of the primary refrain Dickinson says, â€Å"The hardened Heart addresses what it He, that drag,/And Yesterday, or Centuries prior? (Dickinson 1291)† Here she is remembering past agonies and sadness that have happened in her life before the passing of her companion. She additionally remembers past agonizing minutes throughout her life in the second refrain â€Å"The Feet, mechanical, go round (Dickinson 1291)† (Grabher 217). In the keep going verse, Dickinson centers around the current agony that is a major part of her life. â€Å"This is the Hour of Lead†(Dickinson 1291)† alludes to the passing of Dickinson’s dear companion. She at that point goes over the phases of how she proceeds onward from these difficult encounters: â€Å"As Freezing people, recall the Snowâ€/Firstâ€Chillâ€then Stuporâ€then the letting go†(Dickinson 1291)† The way that she closes this sonnets causes it to seem like she is trailing off into a place where there is thought to go harp on what has coincidentally began, her procedure of recuperation (Lundin 234). As should be obvious, various parts of agony have been talked about. Robert Frost’s â€Å"Out, Out† talked about physical torment because of a physical issue, and furthermore the agony of worry because of that injury. James Langston Hughes suggested the racial abuse of Africans and African-Americans that had gone before him in â€Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers.† Emily Dickinson goes de

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Literary Devices in Dreams by Langston Hughes - Free Essay Example

In the poem Dreams, written by Langston Hughes, the poet writes about the importance of dreams and goals. Although the poem is only made up of two quatrains, a powerful meaning is still caught within it. The theme of this poem is to never give up your ambitions. Hughes utilizes multiple poetic and literary devices to help impact the complex message of his poem. He uses metaphors, repetition, and sight imagery to influence the poems theme. The first literary device is metaphor. In the first stanza Hughes writes, Life is a broken-winged bird. This line means that if people did not dream, life would have no potential. He is comparing life to a flightless bird. This comparison impacts the message because it helps elucidate the emotion of sorrow without dreams. Furthermore, in the second stanza, the poet also writes, Life is a barren field. In this line, he compares life to a desolate field. This emphasizes the emptiness of life without dreams. Another device Hughes uses is repetition. Repetition is used in many poems and other forms of literature. In this poem, the poet repeats the phrase Hold fast to dreams. It was written as the first line of each stanza. This sentence means to hold on to your dreams and to never let them go. Hughes repeats this phrase in order to emphasize its meaning. In addition, the poet also repeats the words, hold, for, and life in his poem. He wrote these words in the beginning of the first three lines in each stanza. This type of repetition can be considered as an anaphora. Anaphoras are the repeating of words in the beginning of successive sentences. Repetition impacts the poem because it signifies the theme. The last form of poetic device that was incorporated into the poem is imagery. There are five types of imagery that can be used in writing: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. In Dreams, Hughes uses sight imagery. For example, in the first stanza, Life is like a broken-winged bird that cannot fly. With this sentence readers can picture a bird with an injured wing. This is important because it can help visualize the writing. Another example in the poem is, Life is a barren field frozen with snow. Readers can use this to visualize an empty field that is covered in snow. Sight imagery can affect the meaning of the poem by using language to symbolize the message. In conclusion, with the use of metaphors, repetition, and sight imagery, Hughes creates a meaningful message in his poem Dreams. Metaphors were used for comparing life to different subjects. By repeating phrases, the poet helped emphasize his theme. Hughes used sight imagery to help visualize the ideas. This poem inspires readers about how important dreams are.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Most Popular Type Of Business Organization - 2078 Words

Sole Proprietorship Description †¢ Simplest and oldest business form to establish †¢ Does not require legal expertise or fees when forming †¢ Most popular type of business organization comprising †¢ Excellent option for business that only have a small number of employees (Stevick, G.E., 2006). Two Advantages 1. The owner has complete control over the business, and has all decision-making power. 2. Owner retains all profits made by the organization. Two Disadvantages 1. Unlimited and unshared responsibility means there can be concerns related the payment of debts and legal action being taken against the owner. 2. If the sole proprietor cannot pay his or her business debts or expenditures, he or she is still required to pay for them, as there is no distinction between personal assets and liabilities and business assets and liabilities. Liability Owner has unlimited and unshared responsibility for business Income taxes The business owner’s personal taxes and business taxes are taxed as a single unit with the business owner only to having to file a 1040 tax form along with a Schedule C (â€Å"Profit or Loss from Business Profession†) (Stevick, G.E., 2006). Continuity of the organization Expansion of a sole proprietorship can be difficult, as the monetary resources to support such a move come from the owner’s personal assets. Additionally, if the expansion moves into another state, there are additional taxation and compliance regulations to consider. Control The owner hasShow MoreRelatedBenchmarking Analysis : Benchmarking And Benchmarking Essay759 Words   |  4 PagesBenchmarking Most business processes are similar throughout industries. However, their performance varies from one company to another. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

White Collar Crime And Criminal Behavior - 1534 Words

Throughout history, many academics have proposed various theories to help comprehend and explain criminal behaviours. These theories investigate many different aspects of the causations of crime and those at risk of criminal behaviour. White collar crime is a term founded less than a century ago within 1939 by Edwin Sutherland. He identified white collar crime as crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation (Hirschi, 1987, pg 953). Sutherland strived to explain all types of crimes. He proposed that crime occurred beyond the streets, within the business and politic realm. White collar crimes differ heavily from street crime, as they are nonviolent acts committed by those in a state†¦show more content†¦A life of crime is rooted to an individual s personal social interactions with others. Therefore, a person s environment and who surrounds them are extremely influential factors of the amount of exposure to crime. The only way a person is able to commit a crime is if they have learned how to. Learning crime is an essential aspect that develops into committing crimes. One cannot perform an act of crime if they do not learn the values, motives and techniques to do so (Piquero, Tibbetts Blankenship, 2005). Thus, an individual has to be exposed to an environment that proceeds in a deviance direction. Consequently, relationships with family and friends are the most important authoritative figures in one s life (Haugh, 2014). Associations with others allows an opportunity for a mentor to guide someone into the life of crime. Educators of crime pass down their techniques, methods and mentality of how to commit crime. Knowledge is taught and shared to successfully become a criminal. Sutherland concluded that learning crime is the same as learning any other type of behaviour (Piquero, Tibbetts Blankenship, 2005). Additionally, differential association theory insists crime will presumably occur when one view s the breach of law as more favourable than the compliance of law. Those committing white collar crime have adopted this type of view. White collar crime is developed in the same degree as every other crime, it is learned (Piquero, Tibbetts Show MoreRelatedWhite Collar and Corporate Crime Pose for Explanations of Criminality1010 Words   |  4 PagesWhat Kinds of Problems do White Collar and Corporate Crime Pose for Explanations of Criminality Until relatively recently, the concept of the criminal was that of a person who, somehow disadvantaged and disenfranchised from society, decided to ignore societal laws and concentrate on increasing his personal worth at the expense of society. 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A Sustainable Scenario For Venezuelan Power Generation Sector

Question: A. selecting a producer country with a high potential of unconventional hydrocarbons' reserves, and reviewing the current position in terms of production. B. Analysing the exploration methods used by international oil companies and host governments to search for unconventional hydrocarbons and their suitability in terms of challenge and risk in light of the current price of crude oil. C. Discussing possible future trends as to how the unconventional oil and gas industry itself might respond to the current market for petroleum. Answer: Introduction Nowadays, conventional oil resources cannot meet the increasing demand of oil in the global markets. Therefore, oil industries and Governments are investing in unconventional oil sources which are produced or extracted by using different techniques. In this assignment, a brief discussion will be provided on several exploration methods used by international oil and gas companies. This assignment will also focus on Venezuela which has acquired 12th spot in the oil and gas production rankings. In spite of having huge oil and gas resources the country is currently facing some issues from its Government. Therefore, a recommendation is also included in the assignment. Current position of Venezuela in hydrocarbon reserves Oil Reserves Venezuela has most hydrocarbon reserves in the world, even higher than Russia, UnitedStates and Oman. Different methods can be used to find out hydrocarbon reserves of Venezuela. Evaluation of oil exported by Venezuela was found by the Fundamental Bank of Venezuela (BCV) and a government owned petroleum corporation namedPetroleos de Venezuela, SA (PDVSA). Their combined report states that Venezuela produced 3.1 million barrels of oil on daily basis in the first half of 2010, with exports of 2.4 mbd which is lower than 2.8 mbd in 2009[1].Current oil exports generate rate of Venezuela is $61 billion[2]. However, another report published by the association of the Petroleum Distributing Countries states that average oil manufactured was 2.3 mbd for 2010 in Venezuela with only 1.6 mbd in terms of exports[3]. PDVSA has denied these claims of OPEC by saying that OPEC figures did not include the production in the Orinoco Belt from where the country gets large deposits of extra heavy crude oi l. PDVSA hired a British firm inspectorate to verify its oil export levels to investigate the 1mbd difference between the figures of Venezuela and OPEC. That British inspectorate reported that Venezuela produced 2.3 mbd oil on average in the year of 2010 which was close to the official figures[4]. Venezuela has produced a total of 297 billion barrels till 1 January 2014 which was higher than any other country in the world[5]. Gasoline Venezuela is also known for producing the cheapest gasoline in the world. In 2011, the local gasoline price was 2.1 cents per liter or 8 cents per gallon at the official exchange rate. On the other hand, the international market price is 63.6 cents per liter. It is said that filling a tank costs cheaper than buying a can of soda in Venezuela[6]. Analysing the exploration methods used by international oil companies and host governments to search for unconventional hydrocarbons and their suitability in terms of challenge and risk in light of the current price of crude oil. Hydrocarbon exploration is a search by geologists for hydrocarbons stored beneath the Earths surface, such as oil and gas. Exploration related to oil and gas aregrouped under the science of petroleum geology. International oil companies and host governments use several methods to find out basic evidence of hydrocarbon generation in a location. Deciding where to drill can be considered as an art than a scientific method. The primary method of searching hydrocarbons starts with observing surface terrain. Location of the faults in the surface are very important as it indicates that potential structure traps may lie beneath the surface in reservoir rocks[7]. Observing anticlines is also a good idea as it also reveals the positions of structural traps. Mainly, three types of methods are commonly used to find out the location on hydrocarbons. Those methods are Geophysical Surveys, Remote Sensing and Wild Cat. Geophysical Survey Geophysical techniques such as electrical currents, anomalies related to gravitational force and magnetic force, heat flow, geochemical relationship and variations in density are used for petroleum explorations. Each technique serves to find out different set of characteristics which are used to find out hydrocarbons beneath the surface of earth. Remote Sensing Aerial photographs are used to locate and map surface features in the process which is called as Remote Sensing. Nowadays, satellite images are used as it shows larger areas on the surface of the earth. Satellites are used to capture picture from hundred miles up in the space but its features allow the scientists to see the pictures as large as possible[8]. Besides, satellite images allow the scientists to not only find out what human eyes cannot see but also help them to understand soil moisture, minerals and vegetation distribution and type of the soil. Another method of remote sensing method is using imaginary created from a radar looking at the ground which is called Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR). Some of these imaginaries are taken by aircrafts or space shuttles. For example, the image in figure 1 was taken in South America which is showing a place that has never been explored before[9]. Before this there were no accurate images of this region was available because this area remains covered with clouds. However, after this image was taken, new opportunities are made. Figure 1: Image taken by SLAR (Source: Lovejoy2015) Wildcat Another very efficient exploration method is Wildcat. In this method, a well is drilled in a new area where no other wells exist. The primary target of drilling the wells is to discover accumulation of hydrocarbons. Only one out of ten wells can find oil or gas where only one out of fifty wells can provide economically significant amounts. Most of the Wildcats are drilled on a hunch, intuition or on a small amount of geology. The location of wells are decided by the images taken by SLAR[10]. To save money Wildcat wells are drilled at a smaller diameter than normal wells to save money because an average onshore well costs 10m dollars at present. Exploration process of Crude oil On the other hand, process of recovering crude oil is much more complicated and cost effective. At first, a well is created by drilling a hole into the surface with the help of an oil rig. To provide strength to the structure a steel pipe is placed inside the well. After that, to allow the oil to pass easily through the base, a hole is created[11]. Collection valves and installed with this system to maintain pressure when the crude oil is pumped. Principal recovery The first stage of crude oil recovery is known as principal recovery stage. In this stage, under the base of the oil rig, the crude oil flows naturally. The underground pressure forces the crude oil to come up to the surface. If the pressure is not enough then an artificial lift can be used to pump the oil. Nearly five to fifteen percent oil can be recovered by using this process. Tributary recovery It is obvious that the natural flow of crude oil will reduce with time because of the underground pressure. Therefore, a backup process is used sometimes to extract crude oil from the well. A reservoir is used in this process that increases the pressure of the crude oil artificially[12]. Water or natural gas is injected into the well to drive the crude oil to the base where it becomes easy to pump the oil out. Using this process another 35-45 percent of oil can be recovered. Tertiary recovery Sometimes it becomes impossible to recover the crude oil using tributary process. Then, gas, chemicals and water are injected into the reservoir to increase the flow of crude oil. Then the oil can be collected to the surface[13]. Using this process, approximately five to fifteen percent oil can be recovered. Cost effectiveness of the processes The processes required recovering crude oil from beneath the surface including oil wells; equipment and facilities are highly cost effective. The total cost is called as production cost or lifting cost. The breakdown price of crude oil includes cost of production, cost for exploring and searching, oil well manufacturing cost, cost for transportation and selling and general expenses related to administration[14]. The total cost of recovering crude oil in the year of 2009 is shown in the below figure. Figure 2: Crude oil recovery cost (Source: Peery2013) According to Energy Information Administration (EIA), the report found in 2009 indicates that recovering crude oil cost $12 per barrel in 2009 in United States and $10 per barrel in Middle East. Crude oil recovery cost was $13 per barrel for Exxon Mobil in the year of 2013[15]. Discussing possible future trends as to how the unconventional oil and gas industry itself might respond to the current market for petroleum Dramatic drops in oil prices in the year of 2014 have forced the oil companies to restructure their 2015 plan to increase their efficiency which can deal with the storm of decreasing profits. Recently, WBH energy filed for bankruptcy which has forced many small and mid size companies to reassess their future[16]. Because of the drop in oil prices many supporting companies of oil and gas industry has taken cautious steps. Those companies have started to pull back by cancelling their orders for services and equipments needed. Companies that do not have that ability to deal with this crisis alone are merging with other companies to save themselves. For example, Baker Hughes was bought by Halliburton Co, for $34.6 billion last year which is known as the one of the largest takeovers of a US energy company[17]. However, some companies are planning to increase their spending plan to deal with the crisis. Encana is such a company that is planning to increase their spending plan from $2.7 billion to $2.9 billion in the year of 2015[18]. Enacana, however, had a tremendous advantage which allows them to take this step. Their low debt to equity ratio and its growth is supporting the company to survive in this critical situation. Companies are planning to improve their productivity by improving engineering practices and project planning. Most of the companies are also trying to reduce their supply chain cost by expanding their supplier base. The companies are now working together with their suppliers to figure out efficiencies. As the oil prices havegone down, oil and gas companies are looking for ways to reduce their organizational cost. According to[19], this is an easy job for the companies as most of them are using wrong methods and tools for drilling. Therefore, searching and choosing right methods will automatically reduce their cost. CEO of Packers Plus Energy Services have claimed that the company has a technology that can help other companies to increase productivity and decrease cost. On the other hand, companies like Halliburton Co. and Schulumber Ltd are forced to release technologies like microseismic sensors that can monitorfracks a kilometer underground. Oil price is going down which has forced the companies to increase their efficiency. Therefoee, the companies has implemented a shift in employment. For example, Packers Plus Energy Services Inc. is recruiting maximum number of workers who are highly trained and skillful to handle sophisticated technology. According to[20], since the oil prices has gone down, the oil and gas companies are receiving 4 times more resumes then normal times. However, unfortunately, the budget is diminishing therefore, the chances are high that unemployment among the low skilled workers will increase. Mr. Yager who is a national oil field services leader has stated that it is a bad news for the workers indeed but it will help the companies to survive the crisis. Because of the oil price drop, the competition among the oil companies has become fierce. As most of the companies are inefficient, no one can predict that who will survive and who will not. However, according to[21], the companies that are using all their resources to improve efficiency have the higher chances to survive. On the other hand, the companies that cannot cope up will fail. Issues of Venezuela in terms of oil and gas production in spite of Venezuelas strong hydrocarbon resources, the country is facing mainly two primary issues to maintain their production. Government of Venezuela is reinvesting oil and gas revenues into social programs rather than investing it into exploration, production and refining. Venezuelas state-run oil and gas company is known as Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. which was established in 1970. In 2002, a conflict between the company and the government led to a strike against the president Chavez. This strike brought the companys operations to a halt. Because of that strike, the company lost several technical expertise that has affected the oil and gas production of the country. Recommendation PDVSA should immediately look for more foreign investments as the government is not re-investing in oil and gas industry. Production from the country has slowed down as their not enough money to maintain operations. Oil produced in the region in quite heavy, therefore, blending lighter oils and using upgrades is important to transport the commodity into the market. Therefore, it is also recommended that PDVSA must expand their and improve their accessories and machineries to support the production. Future plans of Venezuela Venezuela is all set to take some major steps to secure their future in oil and gas industry. Venezuela is planning to set up a three dimensional energy strategy that will secure its economy Venezuela is also planning to open up its energy sector to consortia which is led by companies from India, Japan and Germany Venezuela by opening up its energy sector is planning to join hands with those countries which will help them to eliminate the shortage of investment in their oil and gas productions. Conclusion From the assignment, it is clear that current rules and regulations have changed the exploration methods of the international oil exploration companies. However, the reason for Venezuelas loss in production is their own government and their policy. Their government is not investing in oil and gas production purpose. The revenue the government is acquiring from oil and gas and production is being spent at social events. Therefore, PDVSA is not getting ample support to extend and enhance their ability to explore and produce more hydrocarbons. Because of these problems, the economy of the country is also coming down which has become the primary concern of Venezuela. Therefore, the Government is Venezuela and PDVSA jointly has taken some plans to secure their position in oil and gas markets. However, it is not clear that how the country will implement these ideas as the conflicts between the Government and PDVSA is still not finished. References Bautista S, 'A Sustainable Scenario For Venezuelan Power Generation Sector In 2050 And Its Costs' (2012) 44 Energy Policy Belonogov A and Kharchenko O, 'Accounting Concept Development For Exploration And Mineral Resources Appraising' (2014) 22 Journal International accounting Benes J and others, 'Accounting Concept Development For Exploration And Mineral Resources Appraising' (2015) 31(1) International Journal of Forecasting Esfahani H, Mohaddes K and Pesaran M, 'An Empirical Growth Model For Major Oil Exporters' (2014) 29(1) Journal of Applied Econometrics Fonseca Monteiro M, Rosa L and Szklo A, 'Will Venezuelan Extra-Heavy Oil Be A Significant Source Of Petroleum In The Next Decades?' (2016) 61 Energy Policy Gonzlez Cruz D, 'Hydrocarbons Reserves In Venezuela' (2008) 19 Energy Environment Khatib H, 'Oil And Natural Gas Prospects: Middle East And North Africa' (2016) 64 Energy Policy Ladopoulos E, 'Hydrocarbon Reserves Exploration By Real-Time Expert Seismology And Non-Linear Singular Integral Equations' (2012) 5 IJOGCT Laine J, 'Environmental Impact Assessment Of The Application Of Pyrogenic Carbon In Soil' (2013) 4(10) Journal of Environmental Protection Lovejoy W, Methods Of Estimating Reserves Of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, And Natural Gas Liquids (Routledge Revivals 2015) Mansilla D, Venezuela And The International Crisis (Palgrave Macmillan 2015) Martinelli G, Eidsvik J and Hauge R, 'Dynamic Decision Making For Graphical Models Applied To Oil Exploration' (2013) 230(3) European Journal of Operational Research McGonagle C and others, 'Development And Comparison Of Two Sampling Methods To Assess Dermal Exposure To Drilling Fluids And Crude Oil' (www.iom-world. org, 2016) https://www.iom-world. org/media/86861/iom-tm1301. pdf.2013 accessed 3 March 2016 Miller R and Sorrell S, 'The Future Of Oil Supply' (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Murphy D, 'The Implications Of The Declining Energy Return On Investment Of Oil Production' (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences Peery A and Richards R, Geographic Layout Of Petroleum Drilling Data And Methods For Processing Data (Google Patents 2016) Qin Q and others, 'Oil And Gas Reservoir Exploration Based On Hyperspectral Remote Sensing And Super-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Detection' (2016) 10(1), Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Yusuf Y and others, 'A Relational Study Of Supply Chain Agility, Competitiveness And Business Performance In The Oil And Gas Industry' (2014) 147 International Journal of Production Economics [1]H Khatib, 'Oil And Natural Gas Prospects: Middle East And North Africa' (2016) 64 Energy Policy. [2]Marcelo Fonseca Monteiro, L Rosa and A Szklo, 'Will Venezuelan Extra-Heavy Oil Be A Significant Source Of Petroleum In The Next Decades?' (2016) 61 Energy Policy. [3]H.S Esfahani, K Mohaddes and M.H Pesaran, 'An Empirical Growth Model For Major Oil Exporters' (2014) 29(1) Journal of Applied Econometrics. [4]D Mansilla, Venezuela And The International Crisis (Palgrave Macmillan 2015). [5]Santiago Bautista, 'A Sustainable Scenario For Venezuelan Power Generation Sector In 2050 And Its Costs' (2012) 44 Energy Policy. [6]Diego Gonzlez Cruz, 'Hydrocarbons Reserves In Venezuela' (2008) 19 Energy Environment. [7]J Laine, 'Environmental Impact Assessment Of The Application Of Pyrogenic Carbon In Soil' (2013) 4(10) Journal of Environmental Protection. [8]G Martinelli, J Eidsvik and R Hauge, 'Dynamic Decision Making For Graphical Models Applied To Oil Exploration' (2013) 230(3) European Journal of Operational Research. [9]W.F Lovejoy, Methods Of Estimating Reserves Of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, And Natural Gas Liquids (Routledge Revivals 2015). [10]Q Qin and others, 'Oil And Gas Reservoir Exploration Based On Hyperspectral Remote Sensing And Super-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Detection' (2016) 10(1), Journal of Applied Remote Sensing,. [11]A.N Belonogov and O.N Kharchenko, 'Accounting Concept Development For Exploration And Mineral Resources Appraising' (2014) 22 Journal International accounting. [12]C McGonagle and others, 'Development And Comparison Of Two Sampling Methods To Assess Dermal Exposure To Drilling Fluids And Crude Oil' (www.iom-world. org, 2016) https://www.iom-world. org/media/86861/iom-tm1301. pdf.2013 accessed 3 March 2016. [13]E.G. Ladopoulos, 'Hydrocarbon Reserves Exploration By Real-Time Expert Seismology And Non-Linear Singular Integral Equations' (2012) 5 IJOGCT. [14]A.R Peery and R Richards, Geographic Layout Of Petroleum Drilling Data And Methods For Processing Data (Google Patents 2016). [15]A.R Peery and R Richards, Geographic Layout Of Petroleum Drilling Data And Methods For Processing Data (Google Patents 2016). [16]R.G Miller and S.R Sorrell, 'The Future Of Oil Supply' (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. [17]D Mansilla, Venezuela And The International Crisis (Palgrave Macmillan 2015). [18]Y.Y Yusuf and others, 'A Relational Study Of Supply Chain Agility, Competitiveness And Business Performance In The Oil And Gas Industry' (2014) 147 International Journal of Production Economics. [19]J Benes and others, 'Accounting Concept Development For Exploration And Mineral Resources Appraising' (2015) 31(1) International Journal of Forecasting. [20]G Martinelli, J Eidsvik and R Hauge, 'Dynamic Decision Making For Graphical Models Applied To Oil Exploration' (2013) 230(3) European Journal of Operational Research. [21]D.J Murphy, 'The Implications Of The Declining Energy Return On Investment Of Oil Production' (2014) 372 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.